Count de Benyowsky was captured in the war, and on his escape, he sailed south to arrive on the east coast of Taiwan via Japan, making stops at SuAo Bay and the Dongshan River estuary, and leaving behind historical records of his conflicts and interactions with the indigenous people in eastern Taiwan.
Photos Courtesy of｜Sommer Kao、Martin Podstavek、 Hungarian Geographical Museum, Érd, Hungary
In Count de Benyowsky's journal, the ship landed in Yilan twice. For the first time, on August 27, he stayed in Suao Bay for a day, but was severely attacked by the local aborigines, so he lifted anchor and continued northward along the ocean current. The next morning, they arrived at Jialiwan Bay, which is now the mouth of Dongshan River in Yilan. This time, Count de Benyowsky and his party were welcomed. The Kavalan people showed up with meat, rice, vegetables and fruits, and exchanged pins, sewing needles and other tools with Count de Benyowsky and his party. Introduced by a Spaniard from Manila, Count de Benyowsky and his party found a camp where they could take a break and started a series of
詳閱中文完整版本 譯者：莊宏哲 老師 摘譯自1790年倫敦英文首版
Count de Benyowsky’s Journal – Chinese Edition Translator: Chuang Hung-Che Excerpt from the First English Edition Published in London in 1790
詳閱英文完整版本（世界首次發行版本，由法文翻譯後出版）出版社 Dublin, P. Wogan [etc.] 出版年代 1790
Count de Benyowsky’s Journal – English Edition (World’s first English edition, translated from French) Publisher: Dublin, P. Wogan [etc.] Date of Publication 1790
詳閱法文完整版本 （日誌原手寫版本）出版社 Chez F. Bursson 出版年代
1791Count de Benyowsky’s Journal – French Edition (The Original Hand-Written Version) Publisher: Chez F. Bursson Date of Publication 1791
In 18th-century Yilan, the Kavalan people, who were skilled navigators and traders, lived on the plains; they farmed, hunted, and wove, living a life of abundance. The mountains were the territories of the brave Atayal warriors. Wandering into the mountains was like walking into a battlefield, and people could never let down their guards. In SuAo to the south of Yilan, the unique geological features formed a natural harbor, and was home to Qauqaut and the Taiwanese Plains Indigenous Peoples. The Austronesian Kavalan people, according to legends, crossed the ocean and arrived in Taiwan with other Austronesian peoples from Sanasai Island in the south some 1,000 years ago. Before Han Chinese set foot on the Lanyang Plain, Yilan was known as Kavalan, Chia Chi Lan, or Kapalan in the past, proving that the Kavalan people were the dominant race on the Lanyang Plain at the time.
In his journal, Count de Benyowsky described the lifestyle of Yilan’s indigenous peoples he saw. They could already use locally produced food to exchange for daily necessities that came over by the sea.
Food: rice, poultry, grilled pork, sugarcane, lemon, citrus fruits, cinnamon, and brandy-like liquor
Resources: gold, silver, crystal, pearl, cinnabar, silk, and wood
Weapons: bow and arrow, spear
Habits: consumed tobacco, piper betel leaf, betel nut, and small amount of lime.
Oath of Allegiance Ritual: toss wood blocks into fire, spread ashes upward from the incense burner containing the burning wood blocks, and bow to the east. After the ritual, the chief would read out the convent and curse those who would violate it. Then, the pledger would spread the fire from the burner onto the ground, stick a knife into the ground, and place a large stone on his arm. Finally, he embraces the chief, declaring their alliance.
To convince European powers to colonize Formosa, Count de Benyowsky took detailed notes on the life of indigenous peoples at the time:
The island of Formosa is one of the most ideal and abundant islands in the world.
Cities and towns are built on plains, whereas villages are primarily in the mountains. Among them, those with status and wealth live in spacious and beautiful houses that are simple and unadorned; common people live in straw huts, and are forbidden to build better houses. Most straw huts are built with straw or thatch, and are separated by fences; other than the necessary ones, the huts have no other loose components. Men with status have houses with more sophisticated rooms for purposes of dining, reception, and recreation; women’s quarters are usually separated from the main building; although they live in the same courtyard, no one is allowed to come near.
The only commercial activity of the people in Formosa is trade with Japanese sailboats that come here, as well as with Han Chinese.
Among them, shamans or fortune tellers are the most influential. They believe in a single god and are friendly to their neighbors. Those untamed regions are ruled by chieftains or kings, and they have absolute power over their subjects; a commoner may be powerful, but he can never possess any land; his share of the harvest is determined by whether he is favored by the chief, as well as the production of his slaves. Some powerful men have as many as 1,000 or even 2,000 slaves.
Chiefs of these regions call upon important figures in their tribes to form tribal committees; senior warriors are assigned to govern villages or communities, for all the villages and communities in Formosa are ruled by soldiers and they have to report to their superiors a list of the people under their governance every year. Formosa is an island surrounded by sea, and therefore, these chiefs have always maintained fleets; each ship has two masts and 24 oars; they do not know how to use canons, but use man-made fire and smoke very well.
Translator: Tseng Yi-Hua
The Kavalan People on the Plain
In the past, Yilan was known as Kavalan, Chia Chi Lan, or Kapalan. Before Han Chinese set foot on the Lanyang Plain, the Kavalan people settled in small villages near rivers, which were referred to as the “36 communities of Kavalan” during the Qing dynasty. According to research, there are over 40 historical sites of old Kavalan communities. In the late 18th century, large groups of Han people began to immigrate and settle here, taking over Kavalan people’s properties through all kinds of schemes and means, and thus, some Kavalan people relocated elsewhere.
Relics Unearthed from: Kivulan Site in Jiaoxi Township
In August 1771, a navy ship arrived at the coast of Kavalan. They were Count de Benyowsky and his crew. If you were a Kavalan at the time, what would you want to say to Count de Benyowsky?
In 1762, Count de Benyowsky joined the military and fought in the “Seven Years’ War.” Two years later, because of his different religious view with the authority, he was forced to flee to Poland in 1766. In 1769, Count de Benyowsky joined Poland’s Confederation of Bar. In 1770, he was captured for his military operations against Russia and was kept captive in a prison on the Kazan peninsula in eastern Russia. In 1771, Count de Benyowsky successfully escaped and captured a Russian war ship, “St. Peter and Paul.” Over his 14-month journey, Count de Benyowsky travelled all the way from Aleutian Islands, to Alaska, Japan, and the Ryukyus, before finally reaching the beautiful island of Formosa, and thus began his legendary encounter with the indigenous people of Yilan.
Mauritius Augustus, Count de Benyowsky was born in present-day Vrbové, Slovakia, which was under the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 17th century, and the Benyowsky family had both Slovak and Polish noble bloods. In 1768, Count de Benyowsky joined Poland’s “Confederation of Bar” to fight against Russia, and therefore, all three countries, Hungary, Slovakia, and Poland, consider him a national hero.
The Kavalan houses were semi-open elevated buildings, which prevented snakes, rats, and miasma; these buildings are called “stilt houses.” Houses in a village were encircled by bamboo forest, which marked the boundary and could prevent wind and defend enemies. The Kavalan people were fond of water, and were skilled navigators and traders. They used ships to transport goods and exchange for necessary supplies, travelling north to Keelung and Taipei, and south to the Hualien Plain; they also exchanged for fabrics, iron pots, and decorative accessories with foreign merchant ships.
With genes of the ocean, and ancestors from southern islands, the Kavalan people had stayed in lowlands near water, where they could access the sea whenever they wanted. During harvest every year, they would travel on their vessels north to hunt in Tamsui and Guandu. This route recorded by Spanish missionaries in the 17th century remained existent until the early 19th century. In 1809, a Japanese man named Fumisuke drifted to an Amis village at a large harbor on Taiwan’s east coast; he not only encountered the “Kavalan” people who went out to the sea, but also heard the Amis people talking about their fear for the “Kavalan” people that came and went via the sea and kidnapped their people every year from midsummer to early autumn.
The Tatra Mountains is a mountain range that forms the natural border between Slovakia and Poland. The Tatra Mountains have many glacier cirques, caves, mountain lakes, and hanging valleys, and are the highest range within the Carpathians. The Tatra Mountains are the spiritual home and national symbol of the Slovakian people. In spring, summer, and fall, it boasts the most ideal mountain-climbing and hiking trails; in winter, it is a popular ski paradise and vacation destination.
The temperate karst caves have been inscribed as UNESCO World Natural Heritage sites, which include 712 caves in Slovakia and Hungary. The deposits and fossils in these caves are records of the geological conditions in the subtropical and tropical climates under the glacial process in late Cretaceous, early Tertiary Period, and Pleistocene.
Carved by Slovak shepherds using easily found local materials, fujara ranges from 160 to 200 centimeters in length; the main body is connected with an air channel approximately 50 to 80 centimeters long, which allows air to flow through the narrow body to reach the lower, bass part of the instrument. The low, desolate tone of fujara is perfect for life in the mountains, and the songs and expressions of fujara are mostly related to the daily life and work of shepherds. During festivals, professional musicians and shepherds will perform in collaboration.
Moravian Slovak Verbuňk is an improvised dance originated in the military during the 18th century, which was a means of recruiting young men enlist. Usually, performers dance to music; they will sing first, then dance slowly, and finally dance at a rapid pace; usually, a group of male dancers dance to their own interpretation of the music, and there are no strict choreographic restrictions. Varied from region to region, the dance features diverse structures and tempos, and is an important show at local traditional festivals and rituals.
The Wooden Churches of the Slovak part of Carpathian Mountain Area inscribed on the World Heritage List consist of a total of eight churches, including two Roman Catholic, three Protestant and three Greek Orthodox churches, which are iconic religious buildings of wooden architecture in the community where three different religions coexist.
Most of the buildings in Vlkolinec Village can be traced back to the 19th century. The layout of the village, defined by the hilly terrain of the mountains, features log houses situated on narrow lots with stables, barns and smaller outbuildings in the rear, as well as a public well in the square. The village represents the traditional European settlements in mountains, where men and nature shared a codependent relationship.
Revered as the most magnificent castle in Slovakia, Bojnice Castle is also known as the Fairytale Castle, and has inspired the design of Disney Castle together with Neuschwanstein Castle in southern Germany. Standing on a large travertine hill, Bojnice Castle is built on the site of a medieval castle from the 11th century, and is one of the most visited and beautiful castles in Central Europe.
Construction of Orava Castle first began during the rule of the Kingdom of Hungary in the 13th century, and its present structure was not finalized until 1611, but it burned down again in 1800. After a period of dilapidation dating until World War II, it has now become a national monument of Slovakia, and is regarded as the most beautiful castle in Slovakia.
There is a stunning number of wooden buildings in Slovakia, among which, the earliest records of the village of Čičmany date back to 1272, where local people used lime to decorate their log houses, and filled the façades with Renaissance-style drawings, forming a unique village landscape.
Slovakia is an inland country in Central Europe, neighboring Ukraine to the east and Austria to the west, and bordering Hungary to the south, Czech to the northwest, and Poland to the north. In the Ninth century, Slovakia was part of the Great Moravian Empire, and was later ruled by Hungary for an extended period of time. Because of its rich natural resources, such as agriculture, forest, and minerals, Slovakia attracted people of different ethnicities to settle here; before the 16th century, there were already many ethnic groups living in Slovakia, including German, Romanian, Serbian, and Magyars. In the second half of the 16th century, the Ottoman Turkish Empire occupied two-thirds of the territory of the Habsburg Monarchy, which made Slovaks the single largest ethnic group in the monarchy. The Slovakian people fought for the Habsburg Monarchy against Turkish invasions, which led to the awakening of the Slovakian national consciousness.
斯洛伐克人屬西斯拉夫民族，歷史可追溯到西元第9世紀，當時曾經建立大摩拉維亞帝國(Great Moravian Empire)，其後斯洛伐克併入奧匈帝國之匈牙利王國的版圖。1918年奧匈帝國瓦解，從奧地利獨立的捷克，和從匈牙利王國獨立的斯洛伐克，兩國因為同屬於西斯拉夫民族語言文化相近而合併，聯合建立捷克斯洛伐克聯邦共和國(Republic of Czechoslovakia)。首任總統為馬薩里克博士。在1939-1945年第二次世界大戰期間，捷克領土遭德國納粹政府併吞，納粹德國也在斯洛伐克另立魁儡政權。第二次世界大戰結束後，捷克斯洛伐克聯邦共和國成立，1948年捷克斯洛伐克共產黨奪取政權成功，全境被關入「鐵幕」。直至1989年「天鵝絨革命」成功之後，才推翻共產政權，改行民主憲政。
The Slovak people are a West Slavic ethnic group. Their history can be traced to the Ninth century, when they built the Great Moravian Empire. Later, Slovakia was ruled by the Kingdom of Hungary for a long period of time. In 1918, the Austro-Hungarian Empire faltered. Czech declared independence from Austria, and Slovakia broke free from Hungarian control. The two nations came together due to their similar West Slavic languages and cultures, jointly establishing the Republic of Czechoslovakia. The first president was Dr. Tomáš Masaryk. During WWII, Nazi Germany annexed the Czechoslovakian territory, and established a puppet state. After WWII, the Third Republic of Czechoslovakia was established, but the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia successfully took power in 1948, and the entire country was locked behind the “Iron Curtain.” It was not until after the success of the “Velvet Revolution” in 1989 that the communist government was finally overthrown, and Czechoslovakia became a constitutional democracy.
Female politician, lawyer, and current Slovakian president. Zuzana Čaputová is one of the founders of political party Progressive Slovakia, and has served as its Vice-Chairwoman.
On November 15, 1939, university students were injured at a violently suppressed student demonstration on the 21st anniversary of the establishment of the Czechoslovak Republic. Hitler, who had control over Czechoslovakia at the time, sent over 1,000 students to the Sachsenhausen concentration camp, and executed nine of them.
On November 17, 1989, a group of students gathered in Prague in protest of the incident in 1939. Soon, the protest escalated into an anti-government demonstration, as people yelled “Stop the Communist Monopoly Rule!” or “We Want Freedom of Election!” In the following week, Czechoslovakian people continued to voluntarily gather together and demonstrate, and the students and members of the original protest began to organize strikes in the name of the “Civic Forum,” and negotiated with the government representatives at the time.
On November 25, 1989, the largest demonstration during the Velvet Revolution took place. Over 800,000 citizens gathered at Prague’s Letná Park. Eventually, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia relinquished power and announced that a new government would be formed on December 3; however, the cabinet never fulfilled the promise of forming a non-communist government, and the “Civic Forum” decided to launch a large-scale strike again, forcing the communist government to finally resign on December 7. Few days later on December 29, 1989, Václav Havel was elected President of Czechoslovakia.
In June 1992, Czechoslovakia held a parliamentary election. The two winning parties in the Czech and Slovak regions had conflicting policies, and after several negotiations, decided to dissolve Czechoslovakia. On January 1, 1993, Czech and Slovakia officially separated peacefully and rationally, and both became member states of the European Union and Schengen Agreement.
Juraj Janosik, the Carpathian Robin Hood or the Slovak version of Taiwan’s Liao Tianding, was born in a small Slovak town, Techová. He robbed rich noblemen and merchants and shared with the poor. His deeds have inspired many legends, myths, and poems, and he has become an indispensable character in Slovak literature, as well as the symbol of the Slovak people’s fight against authority. Films based on the life stories of Juraj Janosik have been made in 1936, 1963, and 2009.
Between 1563 and 1830, a total of ten kings, one queen, and eight royal wives were crowned in the Dome of St. Martin in the Slovak capital city of Bratislava. To commemorate this glorious period, Bratislava organizes “coronation parade” on the first Saturday of September every year, where people dress up in medieval costumes from five hundred years ago, such as armored knights, princesses, kings, archbishops, and noblemen, to participate in the parade; time seems to be turned back to the Medieval Europe, attracting many tourists to the city for the celebration.
The Slovak national flag consists of three horizontal stripes in white, blue, and red—the Pan-Slavic colors; on the coat of arms is a Patriarchal cross standing on the peak of a blue mountain, emphasizing that Slovakia is a country of Christianity. The peak of the mountain represents the Vysoká peak of the Tatra Mountains.
In the Slovak calendar, each day of the year has its own name, which is shown under the date; everyday corresponds to a name or two, and people celebrate their name days on the dates corresponding to their given names as if celebrating their own birthdays.
Pohoda means a wonderful time of peace and relaxation, and is held annually in the second week of July in Trenčín. It is the largest summer music festival in Slovakia.
It is a music festival popular among young people, featuring mainly indie and electronic music. The festival is held at the town of Piešťany, the famous Slovak wine region, and is revered as one of the ten best small festivals in Europe.
After WWII, Slovakia took advantage of its rich mineral resources, as well as its relatively safe geographical location surrounded by mountains and away from wars, to develop heavy industries like steel and machine manufacturing, becoming an important weapons production region during the Cold War, making tanks, canons, armored personnel carriers, and aircraft trainers that were mainly exported to communist countries or third-world countries. After the 1990s, the Slovak military industry has shrunk in size significantly, and transitioned into modern industries, such as automotive, electronics, mechanical processing, chemical, and communications.
After 2013, the automotive industry has become one of Slovakia’s strong industries because Slovakia is located at the heart of Europe and thus enjoys enormous export potentials. In 2019, Slovakia produced over 1.1 million cars, and the export income of the automotive industry exceeded EUR 31.8 billion. Production of car parts and components for famous automakers like BMW, Ford, PSA, Audi, Renault, Peugeot, Skoda, Land Rover, and Jaguar, has driven the sales of Slovak suppliers to increase by over 3% annually. Today, Slovakia has already become the world’s largest producer of cars per capita. In recent years, four Central European countries, Slovakia, Czech, Hungary, and Poland, have been known as the “Visegrád Group” for their rapidly growing GNI per capita. Taiwanese enterprises, including Delta, Hon Hai (Foxconn), and AUO, have all invested in Slovakia and established plants.
In 2021, Slovakia created the world’s first “AirCar” that combined sports car and aircraft, which successfully completed a 35-minute test flight between the two international airports in the Slovak capital of Bratislava and Nitra, setting a new milestone for the development of air mobility vehicles.
In the Middle Ages, Slovakia led the world in excavation and production of precious metals. Famous for its gold mines, Kremnica is a town in the mountainous region in Central Slovakia, where a mint was established in 1328. For nearly 700 years, the Kremnica Mint has continued to remain in operation, for it mints coins with high quality and purity. Today, in addition to euro coins used in Slovakia, the mint also mints coins for many other countries. The Museum of Coins and Metals in Kremnica not only displays the coin minting process, but also allows visitors to make their own memorial coins.
Stretching over 100 kilometers, the Little Carpathians have an elevation of 762 meters and width of merely six to seven kilometers. The range consists of limestone, granite, shale, and dolomite; oak and beech forests can be found in the mountains, and the vineyards that cover large areas on the lower slopes form Slovakia’s most important wine production region. Famous Slovak wineries cluster on the plains south of Pezinok and Nitra, and the region has over 100 wine producers. Château Topol’čianky was founded in 1933, and the estate occupies over 450 hectares; it is the oldest and largest winery in Slovakia, producing approximately six million bottles of wine annually, and making 60 different labels and grades of wine. In addition to red and white wines, the winery also produces the unique “ice wine” that can only be brewed with grapes harvested at -7 degrees Celsius.
Sheep milk cheese originated in northern Slovakia, and can be categorized into smoked and unsmoked soft cheeses that are eaten with crackers or on their own. Bryndza, a soft sheep milk cheese, is a common ingredient in Slovak cooking, especially the traditional dish, Bryndzové halušky, which has a strong and rich sheep milk cheese flavor. Bryndzové halušky is made by first adding flour and a bit of salt to grated potatoes; then, mix the ingredients well into a dough, use a finger or knife to drop little pieces of the dough into boiling water, fish out the halušky when floating, place on a plate, and drizzle on Bryndza cheese and some stir-fried salted pork (bacon) or green onions. The dish is very delicious, as well as one of the Slovak national dishes.
The valley approximately two kilometers to the northeast of the ancient town of Trenčín is a famous hot spring destination, and revered as the “Carpathian Jewel.” The hot spring of Trenčín rises up from approximately 1.2 kilometers under the ground, and flows by lime soil and magnesium layer; the hot sulfur spring and mineralized mud further enhance the medicinal spring’s healing effects.
Piešťany is situated in the northern part of the plains in southwestern Slovakia, where the climate is the warmest and sunlight the most sufficient. The temperature of the hot spring is between 67 to 69 degrees Celsius; every liter of the hot spring water contains 1500 mg of minerals. The colorless and odorless sodium bicarbonate spring comes from as deep as two kilometers underground, and is known for its healing, skin smoothing, and beautifying effects, making it one of the Central European hot springs that has the highest quality and greatest medicinal effects.
The Slovak Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. Its surface area is approximately 49,000 square-kilometers, which is slightly larger than Taiwan, but its population is only around 5.4 million, one-quarter of the population of Taiwan. Compared to Taiwan, Slovakia’s climate is much colder, with average temperature in winter reaching as low as -6 degrees Celsius. The currency in Slovakia is the euro, and the official language is Slovak.
Slovakia is divided into eight Regions (kraj), each named after the capital and consists of districts (okres/okresy). There are currently 79 districts. Major cities include the nation’s capital of Bratislava, as well as Koršice, Žilina, and Nitra.
Legend has it that when God asked Slovaks what gift they wanted from Him, the Slovak people answered: “We do not want vast land, nor power, money, and glory. All we want is Your love!” Thus, God has given the Slovak people many gifts beyond their imagination, allowing them to live for generations to come in the most beautiful homeland that has become one of the most magnificent attractions in the world.
In the Middle Ages, writers wrote in Latin or Czech under religious or political influences. It was not until the 17th century that Slovak folk songs began to emerge, especially the folk literature that praised the legendary Slovak folk hero Juraj Janosik, reflecting the people’s voices at the time, as they fought the oppressive feudal autocracy and demanded social reform. The Slovak nationalist movement flourished in the 18th and 19th centuries, and poet Ján Hollý (1785~1849) wrote most of his poems as odes to the bravery of ancient Slavic people.
Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav, a Slovak poet, playwright, and translator. He was also a member of the Czechoslovakia parliament. He was born Pavol Országh, and added Hviezdoslav to his name later on, which means “Slav of the stars.” Early on, he wrote poetry in Hungarian. It was not until after he recited his own poems in Hungarian at a gathering and received bursting applause, when his mother said to him with tears in her eyes: “My son! How I wished I could understand what you were reading!” that he suddenly realized the importance of mother tongue; since then, he switched to write in Slovak! Eventually, he became an iconic figure of Slovak literary realism, and produced extensive works. The Hviezdoslav Square in front of Bratislava’s old Opera House is named after him, and a sitting statue of him has also been erected at the square, as literature and music dialogues with each other from respective ends of the square.
Milan Rúfus was born to a family of bricklayers in present-day Ilina, Slovakia. His poetry is known for the way he incorporated moral and life values, love, truth, beauty, suffering and the tragedy of both humans and the world.
薩摩.洽路普卡的首部詩集於 1836 年發表，他的作品中充滿了對於斯洛伐克鄉土的熱愛與忠誠。1868年出版詩集《聲樂》(Spevy)當中更展現出對斯洛伐克母語的期許以及新國家願景。至今他的故居已經改為文學紀念館，外面有一座斧頭斬斷鐵鍊造型的雕塑，象徵斯洛伐克擺脫了千百年來的束縛！
Samo Chalupka’s first poetry collection was published in 1836, and his poems exuded his passion and loyalty for the soils of Slovakia. The poetry collection, Spevy, published in 1868, further displayed his expectations for the Slovak mother tongue and vision for the new nation. Today, his old residence has been repurposed into a memorial hall, which has a sculpture of an axe breaking a chain outside, symbolizing that Slovakia has broken free from its shackles over the past tens of centuries!
Through Dr. Chen Liang Podstavek’s translation in recent years, many illustrated books of Slovak children’s literature have been published in Taiwan. The illustrations in rich and splendid colors and drawings with unique styles have caught the eyes of many readers, such as Mimi a Líza (Mimi & Liza), O Dvanástich Mesiacikoch (The Twelve Months), and Ema a Ružová Veľryba (Ema and the Pink Whale). Some Slovak books for young adults, such as Ajka Dievčatko z Veže (Tower Ajka from the Tower/The Little Girl from the Tower) and Med z L’adových Kvetov (Frost Flower Honey), vividly depict the series of changes in relationships with family and friends as young adults grow up, and how they can face and adapt to these changes.
海頓擔任匈牙利的宮廷樂長時，寫了第一部喜歌劇《女歌手》(La canterina)， 1761年在布拉提斯拉瓦首演。1784年於現今斯洛伐克總統府舉辦海頓交響曲演奏會。
When Haydn was the head musician at the Hungarian court, he wrote his first opera La Canterian, which premiered in Bratislava in 1761. In 1784, Haydn held a symphony concert at the Grassalkovich Palace (now the office residence of the president of the Slovak Republic).
When Beethoven was invited to visit the Brunswick family’s Dolná Krupá Manor House in Slovakia in summer, he met and fell in love with Ms. Giulietta. In 1802, he dedicated the Piano Sonata No. 14 in C-Sharp Minor “Almost a Fantasy” to Giulietta. Their relationship eventually ended, but due to the words of a German poet, music publisher added “Moonlight” to the title, and the sonata has since been known throughout the world as the Moonlight Sonata.
A famous musician born in Bratislava. His music reflects the transition from the Classical to the Romantic musical era, and he has toured around Europe for concerts and performances and engaged in music education.
Liszt, piano master and Father of Symphonic Poem, was only nine when he became an instant hit after a concert at the palace on Ventúrska Street, thus embarking on the road to fame.
Schubert once went to a country house in Želiezovce, Slovakia, for a summer getaway, where he tutored Count Esterházy’s two daughters, Maria and Caroline. During this time, he wrote Fantasia in F minor, which he dedicated to Caroline, and Sonata in B major, Divertissement à la hongroise, and String Quarter in A minor.
Liszt, piano master and Father of Symphonic Poem, was only nine when he became an instant hit after a concert at the palace on Ventúrska Street, thus embarking on the road to fame.
Edita Gruberová was a Slovak soprano. She was known for portraying Rosina in Rossini’s famous opera, The Barber of Seville, the Queen of the Night in Mozart’s The Magic Flute, and Verdi’s Rigoletto. She was one of the greatest dramatic coloratura sopranos between the 20th and 21st centuries.
Slovakia’s prided “Bratislava Boys Choir” has toured to the U.S., Canada, England, Sweden, Germany, the Netherlands, France, Austria, Russia, Israel, Japan, and Taiwan, bringing the wonderful voice gifted to the Slovak people by God to all corners of the world!
魯曲尼查(Lúčnica)是斯洛伐克首屈一指的民俗歌舞團，由許德凡．諾薩勒於1948年創立，曾代表斯洛伐克在包含台灣的60多個國家表演，並灌錄許多張CD與DVD。另外，來自特倫琴古城的「特倫琴民俗舞團」Folk ensemble Trenčan，成立於1949年，曾經於2016年來台參與宜蘭國際童玩藝術節，並演出將斯洛伐克傳統民俗歌舞結合宜蘭民謠「丟丟銅仔」而成的「火車之舞」，表演大受好評。
Lúčnica is the top Slovak national folklore ballet founded by Štefan Nosál in 1948, and has represented Slovakia to perform in over 60 countries, including Taiwan. They have also recorded several CDs and DVDs. Moreover, Folk Ensemble Trenčan from Trenčín founded in 1949 participated in the 2016 Yilan International Children’s Folklore and Folkgame Festival, and gave a performance titled “Train Dance” that combined the traditional Slovak folklore dance and singing with Yilan’s folk song “Diu Diu Tong,” winning praises of audience.
There are many sculptures and statues of different sizes in the plazas and streets of Bratislava, the capital city of Slovakia. Every sculpture has its own interesting anecdote, making them popular attractions among tourists. These sculptures are mostly public artworks, and therefore, local businesses will also carefully match decorations with them, adding some interesting charms to the streets of Bratislava.
Since ancient times, Slovakia has primarily been a region of agriculture, forestry, mining, and animal husbandry, and therefore, it has also developed the craft of pottery that mainly exhibits rural folk patterns and designs. Ceramics making also fits the practical purposes of farming and domestic use. Slovak pottery features simple colors, but displays a unique style.
Kroje are folk costumes worn by Slovaks. Gothic influence is seen in tying shawls and kerchiefs on the head. Fine pleats and gathered lace collars typify the Renaissance era. From Baroque bell-shaped skirts to delicate Slavic patterns, these folk costumes show the complex growth of Czech and Slovak traditions.Kroje has many typical decorations and colors. There are three basic types of kroje：